A kidney stone is a hard mineral and crystalline material formed within the kidney or urinary tract. Kidney stones are a common cause of blood in the urine and often severe pain in the abdomen, flank, or groin. Kidney stones are sometimes called renal calculi. One in every 20 people develops a kidney stone at some point in their life.
The condition of having kidney stones is termed nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis.
What causes kidney stones?
Kidney stones form when there is a decrease in urine volume or an excess of stone-forming substances in the urine. The most common type of kidney stone contains calcium in combination with either oxalate or phosphate. Other chemical compounds that can form stones in the urinary tract include uric-acid and the amino acid cystine.
Dehydration through reduced fluid intake or strenuous exercise without adequate fluid replacement increases the risk of kidney stones. Obstruction to the flow of urine can also lead to stone formation. Kidney stones can also result from infection in the urinary tract; these are known as struvite or infection stones.
Men are especially likely to develop kidney stones, and whites are more often affected than blacks. The prevalence of kidney stones begins to rise when men reach their 40s, and it continues to climb into their 70s. People who have already had more than one kidney stone are prone to develop more stones. A family history of kidney stones is also a risk factor for the development of kidney stones.
A number of different conditions can lead to kidney stones:
# Gout results in an increased amount of uric acid in the urine and can lead to the formation of uric acid stones.
# Hypercalciuria (high calcium in the urine), another inherited condition, causes stones in more than half of cases. In this condition, too much calcium is absorbed from food and excreted into the urine, where it may form calcium phosphate or calcium oxalate stones.
# Other conditions associated with an increased risk of kidney stones include hyperparathyroidism, kidney diseases such as renal tubular acidosis, and some inherited metabolic conditions including cystinuria and hyperoxaluria. Chronic diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure (hypertension) are also associated with an increased risk of developing kidney stones.
# People with inflammatory bowel disease or who have had an intestinal bypass or ostomy surgery are also more likely to develop kidney stones.
# Some medications also raise the risk of kidney stones. These medications include some diuretics, calcium-containing antacids, and the protease inhibitor Crixivan (indinavir), a drug used to treat HIV infection.
What are symptoms of kidney stones?
While some kidney stones may not produce symptoms (known as "silent" stones), people who have kidney stones often report the sudden onset of excruciating, cramping pain in their low back and/or side, groin, or abdomen. Changes in body position do not relieve this pain. The pain typically waxes and wanes in severity, characteristic of colicky pain (the pain is sometimes referred to as renal colic). It may be so severe that it is often accompanied by nausea and vomiting. Kidney stones also characteristically cause blood in the urine. If infection is present in the urinary tract along with the stones, there may be fever and chills.
How are kidney stones diagnosed?
The diagnosis of kidney stones is suspected by the typical pattern of symptoms when other possible causes of the abdominal or flank pain are excluded. Imaging tests are usually done to confirm the diagnosis. A helical CT scan without contrast material is the most common test to detect stones or obstruction within the urinary tract. Formerly, an intravenous pyelogram (IVP; an x-ray of the abdomen along with the administration of contrast dye into the bloodstream) was the test most commonly used to detect urinary tract stones, but this test has a greater risk of complications, takes longer, and involves higher radiation exposure than the non-contrasted helical CT scan. Helical CT scans have been shown to be a significantly more effective diagnostic tool than the IVP in the diagnosis of kidney or urinary tract stones.
In pregnant women or those who should avoid radiation exposure, an ultrasound examination may be done to help establish the diagnosis.
What is the treatment for kidney stones?
Most kidney stones eventually pass through the urinary tract on their own within 48 hours, with ample fluid intake. Pain medications can be prescribed for symptom relief. There are several factors which influence the ability to pass a stone. These include the size of the person, prior stone passage, prostate enlargement, pregnancy, and the size of the stone. A 4 mm stone has an 80% chance of passage while a 5 mm stone has a 20% chance. Stones larger than 9-10 mm rarely pass on their own and usually require treatment.
Some medications have been used to increase the passage rates of kidney stones. These include calcium channel blockers such as nifedipine and alpha blockers such as tamsulosin. These drugs may be prescribed some people who have stones that do not rapidly pass through the urinary tract.
For kidney stones which do not pass on their own, a procedure called lithotripsy is often used. In this procedure, shock waves are used to break up a large stone into smaller pieces that can then pass through the urinary system.
Surgical techniques have also been developed to remove kidney stones. This may be done through a small incision in the skin (percutaneous nephrolithotomy) or through an instrument known as an ureteroscope passed through the urethra and bladder up into the ureter.
How can kidney stones be prevented?
Rather than having to undergo treatment, it is best to avoid kidney stones in the first place. It can be especially helpful to drink more water. (The National Institutes of Health recommend drinking up to 12 full glasses of water a day, if you've already had a kidney stone.) Water helps to flush away the substances that form stones in the kidneys.
Depending on the cause of the kidney stones and an individual's medical history, dietary changes or medications are sometimes recommended to decrease the likelihood of developing further kidney stones. It is particularly helpful, if one has passed a stone, to have it analyzed in a laboratory to determine the precise type of stone so specific prevention measures can be considered.
source : e-health magzine 2007
The following actions will protect your life, and help protect others’ lives and property.
# DO be watchful of your surroundings at all times, during regular office hours, after office hours, and onweekends.
# DO NOT hang around the area where the suspected bomb is located. Leave the place immediately.
# DO report immediately to your security any unattended items that you notice.
# DO call the following numbers to get emergency assistance: 118, 119, 24-33333(Police Emergency), or 243-4253 / 2244-057 (bomb squad)
# DO NOT place yourself in exposed areas (near glass windows for example) and DO NOT peep out tosee what is happening when you hear bombs: you might get directly in harm’s way and make yourselfan easy target. DO move away immediately and crouch down if you hear any sound of gun-fire or anyother similar sound or should you observe an unusual crack suddenly developing on the glass sheets.
# DO be as calm as possible. If someone else takes charge of the situation follow him/her withouthesitation.
# DO help to vacate the building – when necessary - in an urgent and orderly manner.
# DO NOT make any unnecessary movements and decisions before ascertaining the situation around youproperly (For example, if it is an attack on the building, floors above or below you could be affected.You must be mindful of this when exiting.)
# DO ensure that your attire does not hinder movement in an emergency (For example high heels maycause injury in an emergency evacuation). Abandon immediately any sharp / protruding objects you maybe carrying in these situations.
# DO observe the behavior of Customers, Vendors, Messengers, Delivery Boys, etc. as and when timepermits and notify your security or manager immediately if anything unusual is observed. Exerciseyour right tactfully and without the notice of the person concerned so that you protect yourself,other staff members, and the property of the institution without jeopardizing the institution and itscustomer relations.
# Thank you for reading these life-saving tips. Please pass this on to people you know!
Sunnahs of Eating:
x Sit and eat on the floor.
x Spread out a cloth on the floor first before eating.
x Wash both hands up to the wrists.
x Recite "Bismillah wa'la barakatillah' aloud.
x Eat with the right hand.
x Eat from the side that is in front of you.
x If a morsel of food falls down, pick it up, clean it and eat it.
x Do not find fault with the food.
x When eating, sit with either both knees on the ground or one knee raised or both knees raised.
x Clean the plate and other utensils thoroughly after eating.
x By doing this, the utensils make dua for one's forgiveness.
x Recite dua after eating. ( Al hamdu lillahi lazi atamana saqana wo jaalna minal musalamin )
x After meals wash both the hands.
x Eat with three fingers if possible.
x One should not eat very hot food.
x Do not blow on the food.
x After eating one should lick his fingers.
Sunnahs of drinking:
x A Muslim should drink with the right hand. Shaytaan Drinks with the left hand.
x Sit and drink.
x Recite "Bismillah" before drinking.
x After drinking say " Alhamdullilah".
x Drink in 3 breaths removing the utensil from the mouth after each sip.
x Do not drink directly from the jug or bottle. One should pour the contents into a glass first and then drink.
Sunnahs of Sleeping: x To sleep in the state of Wuzu.
x To make the bed yourself.
x Dust the bed thrice before retiring to bed.
x One should change into some other clothes (e.g.pyjamas ) before going to sleep.
x It is Sunnah to sleep immediately after Isha Salaah.
x To apply surmah in both the eyes.
x To brush the teeth with a miswaak.
x To sleep on the right hand side.
x To sleep with the right palm under the right cheek.
x To keep the knees slightly bent when sleeping.
x To sleep on a bed or to sleep on the floor are both sunnah.
x To face Qiblah.if possible.
x To recite Surah Mulk, before sleeping.
x To recite Ayatul Kursi.
x To recite Surah Ikhlaas, Surah Falaq and Surah Naas before sleeping 3 times and thereafter blow over the entire body thrice.
x Recite Tasbeeh-e-Fathima before sleeping.( i.e. 33 X Subhan Allah 33 X Alhamdulillah and 34 X Allahu Akbar).
x To recite the dua before sleeping. ( i.e. Be ismik allahumma amutu wo ahya )
x To wake up for Tahajjud Salaah.
Sunnahs on Awakening:
x On awakening rub the face and the eyes with the palms of the hands in order to remove the effects of sleep.
x Thereafter recite the dua on awakening. ( i.e. Al hamdu lillahi allazi ahyana badama amatana wo ilaihunushur )
x On awakening cleanse the mouth with a miswaak.
Sunnahs when wearing clothes:
x Rasulullah (S.a .w.) loved white Clothing.
x When putting on any garment Rasulallah (S.a.w.) always began with the right limb.
x When removing any garment Rasullallah ( S.a.w.) always removed the left limb first.
x Males must wear the pants above the ankles. Females should ensure that their lower garment covers their ankles.
x Males should wear a "topee" or turban. Females must wear scarves at all times.
x When wearing shoes, first wear the right shoe then the left.
x When removing them first remove the left and then The right.
Sunnahs of the Toilet :
x Enter the toilet with your head covered.
x To enter the toilet with shoes.
x Recite the dua before entering the toilet.( i.e. Allahumma inni auzbeka minal qubs wal qabaes )
x Enter with the left foot.
x To sit and urinate. One should never urinate whilst Standing.
x To leave the toilet with the right foot.
x To recite the dua after coming out of the toilet ( i.e. Ghufranaka )
x One should not face Qiblah or show his back towards the Qiblah.
x Do not speak in the toilet.
x Be very careful of the splashes of urine (being unmindful in this regard causes one to be punished in the grave).
x After relieving oneself, to cleanse oneself using water.
Sunnahs of the Home: x To recite the dua before entering the home.
x To greet those that are in the house with "Assalaamu Alaykum". Even though it may be your own house.
x To announce ones arrival by coughing, greeting, etc.
Other Sunnahs of High Importance:
x Using a miswaak is a great Sunnah of Rasulullah (S .a . w. ) One who makes miswaak when making wuzu and thereafter performs salaah will receive 70 times more reward. It will also enable one to easily recite the kalima at the time of death.
x To take a Ghusl bath on a Friday.
x To apply Attar (applies to men only).
x To show mercy to those that are younger than you.
x To respect your elders.
x It is sunnah to ponder over Allah Ta'ala and His Creation.
x For men to keep a beard that is one fist in length.
x To visit a Muslim when he is sick.
x To be good towards ones neighbour.
x To meet a Muslim with a cheerful face.
x To care for the poor and the needy.
x To keep good relations with all your relatives.
x To honour a guest even though he may not be of a very high position.
x To greet all Muslims by saying " Assalaamu alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakaatuhu".
x To keep the gaze on the ground whilst walking.
x To speak softly and politely.
x To command people to do good.
x To forbid them from doing evil.
x To carry ones shoes in the left hand.
x To make wuzu at home before going to the Masjid.
x To enter the Masjid with the right foot.
x To leave the Masjid with the left foot.
x To recite some portion of the Quran Shareef daily.
x To be hospitable towards one's guest.
x To exchange gifts with one another.
x To make dua to Allah Ta'ala for the fulfillment of one's needs in what ever language one desires.
x To consult with one's parents, teachers or elders before doing any work.
x To respect one's parents.
Please Remember Me in Your Valuable Duaas
DON'T ACT THE 7 ACTIONS BELOW
AFTER YOU HAVE A MEAL
1.Don't smoke- Experiment from experts proves that smoking a cigarette after meal is comparable to smoking 10 cigarettes (chances of cancer is higher).
2. Don't eat fruits immediately - Immediately eating fruits after meals will cause stomach to be bloated with air. Therefore take fruit 1-2 hr after meal or 1hr before meal.
3.Don't drink tea - Because tea leaves contain a high content of acid. This substance will cause the Protein content in the food we consume to be hardened thus difficult to digest.
4.Don't loosen your belt - Loosening the belt after a meal will easily cause the intestine to be twisted & blocked.
5.Don't bathe - Bathing after meal will cause the increase of blood flow to the hands, legs & body thus the amount of blood around the stomach will therefore decrease. This will weaken the digestive system in our stomach.
6.Don't walk about - People always say that after a meal walk a hundred steps and you will live till 99. In actual fact this is not true. Walking will cause the digestive system to be unable to absorb the nutrition from the food we intake.
7.Don't sleep immediately - The food we intake will not be able to digest properly. Thus will lead to gastric & infection in our intestine.
Listed below are the 7 Common mistakes usually we make in prayers!
Mistake 1: Reciting Surat al-Fatiha fast without pausing after each verse.
The Prophet (SAW) used to pause after each verse of this surah. (Abu Dawood)
Mistake 2: Sticking the arms to the sides of the body, in rukoo' or sujood, and sticking the belly to the thighs in sujood.
The Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: "Let not one of you support himself on his forearms (in sujood) like the dog. Let him rest on his palms and keep his elbows away from his body." (Sahih Muslim) . The Messenger of Allah (SAW) used to keep his arms away from his body during rukoo' and sujood that the whiteness of his armpits could be seen (Sahih Muslim).
Mistake 3: Gazing upward during prayer.
This may cause loss of concentration. We are commanded to lower our gaze, and look at the point at which the head rests during sujood. The Prophet (SAW) warned: "Let those who raise their gaze up during prayer stop doing so, or else their sights would not return to them. i.e. lose their eyesight]." (Muslim)
Mistake 4 : Resting only the tip of the head on the floor during sujood.
The Prophet (SAW) said: "I am commanded to prostrate on seven bones the forehead and the nose, the two hands [palms], the two knees, and the two feet." (Sahih Muslim) Applying the above command necessitates resting the forehead and the nose on the ground during sujood.
Mistake 5 : Hasty performance of prayer which does not allow repose and calmness in rukoo' or sujood.
The Messenger of Allah (SAW) saw a man who did not complete his rukoo' [bowing], and made a very short sujood [prostration] ; he (SAW) said: "If this man dies while praying in this manner, he would die upholding a religion other than the religion of Muhammad." Abu Hurairah (RA) said:
"My beloved friend, Muhammad (SAW) forbade me to perform postures of prayer copying the picking of a rooster; (signifying fast performance of prayer), moving eyes around like a fox and the sitting like monkeys ( i.e. to sit on thighs)." (Imam Ahmad & at-Tayalisi) The Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: " The worst thief is the one who steals from his own prayer." People asked, 'Messenger of Allah! How could one steal from his own prayer?' He (SAW) said: "By not completing its rukoo' and sujood." (At Tabarani & al-Hakim).
To complete rukoo' is to stay in that posture long enough to recite 'Subhana rabbiyal Adtheem' three times, SLOWLY, and 'Subhana rabbiyal-a'ala' three times, SLOWLY, in sujood. He (SAW) also announced: "He who does not complete his rukoo' and sujood, his prayer is void." (Abu Dawood & others)
Mistake 6 : Counting tasbeeh with the left hand
The Prophet (SAW) used to count tasbeeh on the fingers of his right hand after salah. Ibn Qudamah (RA) said: " The Messenger of Allah (SAW) used his right hand for tasbeeh." (Abu Dawood). The above hadeeth indicates clearly that the Prophet (SAW) used only one hand for counting tasbeeh. No Muslim with sound mind would imagine that the Prophet (SAW) used his left hand for counting tasbeeh. Aa'ishah (RA) said that the Prophet (SAW) used his left hand only for Istinjaa', or cleaning himself after responding to the call of nature. He never used it for tasbeeh. Yasirah (RA) reported: The Prophet (SAW) commanded women to count tasbeeh on their fingers.
The Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: "They (the fingers) will be made to speak, and will be questioned (on the Day of Resurrection. )" (At-Tirmidhi) .. The above Hadeeth indicates that it is preferable to count tasbeeh on the fingers of the right hand than to do so on masbahah (rosary).
Mistake 7 : Crossing in front of a praying person.
The Messenger of Allah (SAW) warned: "Were the one who crosses in front of a praying person to know the consequences of doing so, he would have waited for *forty better than to cross in front of him." (Sahih Bukhari and Muslim). *The forty in the tradition may be days months or even years. Allah knows best.
Common Errors in Prayer That MUST Be Avoided - Please inform your near and dear ones to take care of the above.